July 30th 2020

by Mark Carrier

What is declarative programming?

Programming languages are commonly classified as being either declarative or imperative. What does this mean? You can find the definitions online pretty easily. It boils down to something like this:

Imperative programming

You tell the machine things that you want it to do.

Declarative programming

You tell the compiler things that are true.

But it might still not be clear to you. Or at least not practical. Let's look at an example: calculating the Fibonacci sequence.

Here's my imperative version in JavaScript:

function fibonacci(n) {
  if(n <= 1) {
    return n

  let previousValues = [1,1]
  for(let i = 2; i < n; i++) {
    const next = previousValues[0] + previousValues[1]
    previousValues[0] = previousValues[1]
    previousValues[1] = next
  return previousValues[1]

Here's the declarative version from the Haskell wiki:

fib 0 = 0
fib 1 = 1
fib n = fib (n-1) + fib (n-2)

I expect the first version to feel familiar to you:

Hello computer. I want you do this over and over again until this happens. Then stop and send the information back.

The second version just "declares" things that are true (the "what" of the problem). Nothing else. There's nothing that says "how" to use the information. It's even devoid of any real sequencing. In a proper functional language, you can change the order of statements without affecting program output. You're just stating (declaring) some facts and letting the compiler worry about their relevance.

You might think: well that's nice and all but it'll eventually need to become "real code" that the machine can actually execute. You're completely right. Declarative code isn't useful unless it's converted into imperative instructions for your processor.

The functional world's conviction is that, for the vast majority of software problems, programmers should not be the ones doing this. There's two really good reasons for removing the "how" from our code and focusing on the "what":

  1. As programmers, we can focus more on our clients' problems and less on technical details.
  2. We can give our compilers freedom to create imperative instructions that are likely to be better than our own.

You could think that placing this burden on compilers is complex and impractical but it isn't. It's actually quite simple.

Declarative statements can usually be converted into imperative instructions very easily. A good example of this is the map function. map allows us to express the result of applying a function to all the values inside of an array. It maps from one set of values to a different set of values. Say you wanted to get the length of each word in a sentence. The imperative version might look like this:

function getWordLengths(sentence) {
  const words = sentence.split(" ")
  let wordLengths = []
  for(let i = 0; i < words.length; i++) {
  return wordLengths

Using map, you can get something more declarative:

function getWordLengths(sentence) {
  return sentence
    .split(" ")
    .map(word => word.length)

Look ma, no loops!

It's trivial for a compiler to turn this into a loop if it needs to. Most of the loops we write are quite unremarkable. Why write them ourselves if the compiler knows how to handle it? It's just unneeded verbosity. Furthermore, we're actually depriving the compiler of an opportunity to perform some clever optimizations. Most importantly, the presence of the for loop clutters our code and makes it harder to read the truly valuable information: the relationship between the function's input and output.

As beginners we might feel like declarative code is actually harder to read. There's a couple of reasons for this. First of all, more concise code means greater information density. With a little bit of practice we can get used to this. Once the training wheels are gone you'll never want to go back.

The second reason is that we're used to thinking in terms of "the machine did this and then it did that". It's a nice mental model for helping us turn something abstract into something tangible. The problem is that it's deceptive. Unless you're programming in C or assembly the machine probably didn't do what you expect. Interpreted languages (Java, Python, JavaScript, C#, etc) are doing all kinds of things to turn our instructions into better instructions. Even if you're writing C or assembly, the CPU's internals are interfering in complex ways to make you feel like you're working with the Von Neumann architecture despite the limitations of this model.

So, a revised definition of the two paradigms could be as follows:

Imperative programming

You tell your compiler things that it'll pretend to do because that's how you trained your brain to write code.

Declarative programming

You tell your compiler things that are true and let it figure out the best way to turn it into something executable.


As software evolves, it's logical to expect new abstractions that allow programmers to focus more on problems and less on implementation details. In most cases we're willing to sacrifice lots of performance for these abstractions since programmers cost a lot more than computers. My prime motivation for learning FP and FRP is to improve my productivity. What's surprising is that declarative programming can potentially offer better performance than most of the imperative abstractions that are prevalent. Imperative programming using a high level language is essentially taking the worst of both worlds.

I hope this convinces you of the value of researching and learning more about the different ways that you can use these not-so-easy concepts. Unfortunately we're far away from a world that allows us to take full advantage of functional programming's benefits. Our very machines are built with the expectation that we will write imperative code. Despite this, functional programming still has a lot to offer. Performance just usually isn't the main benefit (yet).